Thursday, October 17, 2013

Facebook word puzzles 451-500

What do these expressions have in common/ 451-What do these expressions have in common? That great charmerI mourn blarney

Hated for ill

452-Discern the convergent words: a)plains-wings-saber b)market-bag-bite c)net-coast-screen

453- What do these words have in common? helipad nonosecond zucchini

454- -Discern the convergent words: page-hem-protest reporter-an-by race-ion-lab

455-What do these expressions have in common/?bacon-appalling-father

456-Discern the convergent words: -candy-pop-private gun-held-left put-quarter-room

457-What country anagrams to a vehicle

458--Discern the convergent words: fruit-nuts-juice old-girl-all beef-cheese-knife

459-name these “odd “places & people

an odd city in North America of at least 10 letters with population of minimum 500,0000

an odd radio personality kasem

an odd onetime Yankee pitcher

an odd character featured in over 20 movies (10 letters minimum)

an odd member of a 60s singing quartet mama

460--Discern the convergent words: scissors-salon-biting close-fight-iron shadow-shut—sore

461-What do these expressions have in common/? child-guild-pawned

462--Discern the convergent words: libel-life-line gay-around-bleed ail-smart-kick

463-What do these expressions have in common/? lilliputian-google-blurb

464--Discern the convergent words: loo-main-proof face-oven-delivery blood-agent-crush

465-What do these expressions have in common/?priest created-condo

466--Discern the convergent words: ash-rod-part desert-her-dirty mother-heat-mud

467-What do these words have in common? diver-landing-pierce-sales

468--Discern the convergent words: leopard -buck -head back -whip-out piercing-red-idle

469-What do these expressions have in common/?weighty-boner-stent

470--Discern the convergent words: saw-second-set door-down-draft cows-hare-id

471-What do these expressions have in common/?studio bandit-ballot

472--Discern the convergent words: or-ox-cur ides-hide-ford cart-clothes-play

473-What’s the a)only number that has the same number of letters as the number b)only number whre the letters appear in alphabetical order? c)only number in reverse alpabetical order

474--Discern the convergent words: bar-arm-eye big-pie-love butter-spring-mock

475-What do these expressions have in common/?denim-donnybrook-jeans

476--Discern the convergent words: storm-wash wave a-red-feed pug-ring-hairs

477-What do these expressions have in common/?cookie-cole slaw-yacht

478- -Discern the convergent words: fin-imp-wife club-cream-jerk field -flour-a

479-What do these expressions have in common/? fez-tulip-horde

480--Discern the convergent words: heaven-wild -wash pole-wild-skills shine-spider-wash


481-Discern a twelve letter word via this equasion: T = T

482-Discern the convergent words: -uncle-boy-bot white-big-blue dead-evade-orange

483-What do these expressions have in common/?tangerine-raincoat-animal

484--Discern the convergent words: ham-club-shop bowl-meat-tomato moon-bee-well

485- What do these expressions have in common/? comment-location-champ

486--Discern the convergent words: led-are-few keeper-seal-shrew seal-medic-hole

487-Name a beer brand that backward spells an item of clothing

488--Discern the convergent words: western-sauce-dinner Indian-meal-sweet ball-market-white

489-Aside from being school subjects what do these words have in common?history-geography-mathematics

490--Discern the convergent words: roast-pie-fat face-thrash-soda favor-paste-powder

491-Name a 7 letter word that is not a garment that is comprised of 2 garments.

492--Discern the convergent words: down-head-ball chicken-pocket-bone rubber-great-red

493-Name a word that features 2 astrological signs

494--Discern the convergent words: hedge-line-tied acid-eater-page hunt-conclude-able

495-Name a 7 letter word comprised of 2 animals that isn't an animal.

496--Discern the convergent words: butter-bar tough digger-ping bake rotten-salad-bad

497- Name a 2 word palindromic phrase that refers to a type of animal excrement

498--Discern the convergent words: butter-bone-breast dark-nuts-root field-fried-sticky

499 – Name a 2 word palindromic phrase that refers to a malevolent fruit

500- -Discern the convergent words: stain-stream-work fore-genius-pea under-wear-note

Friday, October 4, 2013

excerpt from How Happy Became Homosexual

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Richard Rodriguez
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from the ronsdale press

Howard Richler
HOWARD RICHLER ___________________________
Howard Richler is a Montreal-area word nerd and author of these seven books on a variety of language themes: Dead Sea Scroll Palindromes, Take My Words, A Bawdy Language, Global Mother Tongue, Can I Have a Word With You?, Strange Bedfellows and his most recent book, How Happy Became Homosexual and Other Mysterious Semantic Shifts ( May 2013, Ronsdale Press, Vancouver). From his latest.
Although in the Middle Ages it is unlikely that gold fetched in the vicinity of $1500.00 an ounce, we still should pity the Middle Ages alchemists who futilely endeavoured to turn lead into gold. For all they had to perform such a metamorphosis was to create a simple series of synonym chains. Let me explain how this black art can be completed. For example to turn black into white we follow the following steps: Black-dark-obscure-hidden-concealed-snug-pleasant-easy-simple-pure-White Macbeth's witches must have been on to something when they realized that fair is foul and foul is fair because in the same manner ugly transmogrifies into beautiful: Ugly-offensive-insulting-insolent-proud-lordly-majestic-grand-gorgeous-Beautiful. This legerdemain doesn't appear as impressive when we reveal that the word pretty originally meant cunning and that came to mean beautiful through these set of stages: Pretty-cunning-clever-fine-nice-Beautiful. In fact, we can empirically “prove” the veracity of postmodern theory by showing how true is indeeed false: True-just-fair-beautiful-pretty-artful-artificial-fake-False.
In fact, many words have undergone changes in meaning that allow us to trace a similar process. For example, the word NICE originally meant “foolish” or “stupid” in the 14th century. Since then it has gone through the following progression in meaning: nice- loose-mannered-foolish-wanton-lazy-effeminate-tender-delicate-shy-refined-fine-agreeable-kind- pleasant. The word SHREWD originally meant “foolish” and went through this semantic transformation: shrewd-depraved-wicked-naughty-abusive-calculating-artful-cunning-wise. SAD went through this metamorphosis: sad-satiated-settled-mature-serious-unhappy. Also, GAY went through a transformative process from its original sense of “happy” to today's prevalent sense of “homosexual.”
Let us take it as settled: the meaning of words is dictated by popular usage and words are always changing meanings through a variety of processes. The first, and most important, process is metaphor.
Metaphor in semantic change involves the addition of meanings due to a semantic similarity or connection between the new sense and the original one. The semantic change of “grasp” from “seize" to “understand” can be seen as a leap across semantic domains, from the physical sphere, i.e, “seizing” to a mental one, “comprehending.” In the same way when we refer to a person as a “rock” or a “pillar of the community,” we are using the words in a metaphorical fashion. Similarly, football adopted the term blitz, a sudden massive military attack to refer to a sudden charge into the offensive backfield by defensive players. Broadcast originally meant “to cast seeds out” but with the advent of radio and television, the word was used metaphorically to refer to the transmission of audio and video signals. (In agricultural circles, the original sense of broadcast is still employed). Magazine originally referred to a storehouse (still prevalent to refer to ammunition) and the periodical sense of magazine sees the word metaphorically as a storehouse of words and information. The word “myopia” surfaced in 1693 to refer to an inability to see distant objects clearly. By 1821, poet Charlotte Smith used it metaphorically in the phrase “myopia of the mind.”
We also have a process of generalization. For example, at one time the word fabulous meant resembling a fable; then it meant incredible because what is found in fables is incredible. Now it has weakened even more and you can use it to describe a dress you like. Awful is another example, it originally meant “inspiring awe” but since what inspires awe isn’t always so pleasant, it came to mean something negative. The original sense of awful doesn’t even exist anymore. This process also works for nouns and verbs. Originally a barn was a place you stored barley. It was a compound of bere (barley) and aern (place). A mill referred to specifically a place where you made meal. Once manufacture was made by hand, saucers held sauce, pen knives fixed quill pens.
Originally assassin and thug referred to murderers who belonged to Eastern religious sects only. Through the miracle of globalization westerners too can be members of the fraternities of thugs and assassins.
Words also become narrowed. Deer once referred to any animal, meat to any food, accident to any incident, actor to any doer, liquor any fluid, hound any dog, meat any food, flesh any meat, fowl any bird, doctor any learned person, garage any storage space and starve just meant to die, not die due to lack of food.
Also because of the capricious nature of people, words are subject to value judgements and go through processes of pejoration and amelioration. Often this process is due to changes in society. So knave once meant any boy, lewd referred only to the laity, boor any peasant, vulgar only meant common. The movement away from a feudal, agrarian lifestyle facilitated the deterioration of these words. The value of words is often determined by groups that possess power and boors and knaves drew the short stick. On the other hand, noble that at first only referred to accident of being born into an aristocratic family ameliorated to imply one with a virtuous character. Women being relatively powerless through most of the English language's recorded history have seen its share of the pejoration process. Observe mistress, governess, majorette to name just a few examples. They may have commenced as equivalent to mister, governor, and major but all have picked up negative or downmarket senses along the way.
Many words also go through what can be called a weakening process in which the sense
of the word is toned down. Examples of such are adjectives such as awful, dreadful, horrid, terrible; verbs such as annoy, baffle, bruise and confound and the nouns scamp and friend, thanks to Facebook. Less often, some words strengthen. One sees this process with censure, disgust and gale. Originally censure meant any opinion, disgust merely meant “not like” and gale meant “light wind.”