Wednesday, June 20, 2018


(First appeared in  Lexpert Magazine) 
                                            What the Dickens? Slang in Great Literature?
                                                             Howard Richler

In 1807, Thomas Bowdler published The Family Shakespeare stating in his preface that “nothing is added to the original text, but those words and expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety be read in a Family.” Within thirty years he had been eponymized and verbified in one swell swoop and the OED defines bowdlerize as “to expurgate (a book or writing), by omitting or modifying words or passages considered indelicate or offensive.”
Actually, the lexicographic recording of slang is a relatively recent phenomenon. The first dictionaries only dealt with “difficult words” that were relatively new to the lexicon and only centuries later did they become more comprehensive in nature. There is the story, perhaps apocryphal, that after Samuel Johnson wrote A Dictionary of the English Language in ­­1755, two elderly sisters congratulated the lexicographer for not including “ghastly” words in his tome. To which, Dr Johnson reputedly replied, “What ! My dears! Then you have been looking for them?” 
But returning to Shakespeare, Jonathon Green in The Stories of Slang reports that Shakespeare employed over 500 slang terms in his works with 277 of them representing the first recorded usage of the word. Green mentions that comedian Lenny Bruce noted that everybody yearns for what “should be” but what should be doesn’t exist, there is only what “is” and in describing the human condition, Shakespeare described the many unsavoury aspects of our characters and he often used slang terms effectively in his portrayal of people.
For example, in All’s Well That Ends Well, the term kickie-wickie is used to mean wife; pickers and stealers in Hamlet refers to hands; asshead in Twelfth Night to a dolt, and small beer in Othello replaces trifles. Perhaps intuiting that another great British writer would emerge centuries later, he created the expression what the dickens in Merry Wives of Windsor. (Dickens is a euphemism for Devil). Shakespeare created slang terms as required. So in Henry IV Part 2 he invented the word fustilarian to refer to a smelly old woman by adding the suffix -larian to fusty. In All’s Well That Ends Well, he created the word facinerious to represent evil adapting the Latin facinor, “bad deed.” And to the chagrin of the likes of the Bowdlers of the world, Shakespeare used many slang terms in his countless double entendres. For example, in an early scene in Hamlet that begins with the Prince saying to Ophelia, “Lady, shall I lie in your lap?”, the term “lap,” is a double entendre for the lady’s pudendum. Also, Hamlet’s  reference to his mother in the line “Frailty, thy name on woman” takes on a different hue once we realize that  “frail” or “frail sister” was a euphemism for prostitute.
Many common words have distinct naughty meaning in Shakespeare’s plays. In The Stories of Slang, Green reveals that a nunnery isn’t remotely religious (even if populated by nuns): we are in the world of brothels..; nor are the low countries..even remotely Dutch but  what modernity coyly terms ‘down there.’ ”
Interestingly, the first OED citation of the word slang is only in 1756 in William Toldervy’s The History of Two Orphans, so what disreputable language was Shakespeare using seeing that he died 140 years before the term slang was ever used? The first dictionary that included what we would call slang terms was titled A New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern of the Canting Crew was compiled in 1698 London and we only know the author by the initials B.E.  So while Shakespeare has been dubbed the“immortal Bard,” even he could not access a tome written over 80 years after his demise. One of Shakespeare’s major source of disreputable words seems to derive from his contemporary John Florio’s 598 Italian-English dictionary The Worlde of Words. For example, in it, Florio translated fottere as to jape, to sard, to swive, to occupy and the unmentionable f-word.  Other slang terms he used had been in the English language since at least the time of Chaucer in the 14th century.
Shakespeare is hardly the only English language literary great to successfully employ slang. Dickens describes many of his characters slangily, and particularly in Oliver Twist. The Artful Dodger is dubbed a “downy cove,” which Green’s Dictionary of Slang defines as “a knowledgeable, artful, aware,  ‘fly’ person.” Uber-pickpocketer Bill Sykes is called a “swell mobsman” and Fagin is   a “fence,” a receiver of stolen goods and Sykes says to him in one passage “What are you up to? “ill-treating the boys… you insatiable old fence.” Lady of the street Nancy is called a tuppenny uprighter due to the oft horizontal nature of her profession. Also, in The Stories of Slang, Green relates that Ulysses by James Joyce, considered by some as the greatest novel ever composed, contains almost 1000 slang terms.
Stating categorically, however, whether a specific term qualifies as slang is often a fool’s errand. In The State of the Language Phillip Howard states that “one man’s slang is another man’s colloquialism is another man’s vernacular is another man’s everyday speech.”
That being said, slang is a monument to language’s ability to evolve by slicing through its oft pretentious and euphemistic nature.
Richler’s latest book is Wordplay: Arranged and Deranged Wit

Saturday, June 16, 2018


(Originally appeared i  the June Senior Times)
      Help the Word Nerd define himself
                                Howard Richler

As I turn 70 in November, I’ve started to reflect on who I am. Fifteen years ago I agonized on what to call the woman I lived with to whom I wasn’t married. I thought partner sounded right but twice when I referred to my partner in conversation, I was informed that this term had been expropriated by the gay community. My latest word obsession is to create a term to describe folks like myself and many of you who are over 65 but uncomfortable with the terms “senior” or “elderly.” “Elderly” connotes someone with physical disabilities; the former suggests a retired person who is less active than they were in their youth.
While these terms may have been apt for our grandparents, as Bob Dylan said a long time ago “the times they are a-changin’.” After all, our increased life expectancy is staggering, and it has been calculated that by 2030 life expectancy will exceed 85. Research shows that reaching 65 for most people doesn’t mark a decline in performance. Also, statistics show that people over 65 contribute approximately 20% of consumer spending and within two decades this amount is expected to increase to 25%. Whereas in 2000 only 12.8% of people over 65 were in the workforce, by 2016 this figure had climbed to 18.8% We all know that youth associate aging with decline and don’t comprehend that many older people feel and act much like their younger selves. A recent study conducted by AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) asked a group of millennials to reveal the age they considered to be old. This averaged out to be 59. Then they introduced the same group to some people 60+. A video shows how the millennials changed their perception after interacting with vibrant older persons and in the process relinquished their beliefs that aging involves decline.
 Given that those in their 60s are far more active in many ways than previous generations, let’s find a more dynamic term for us. Here are some candidates: boomers, geriactives, the wise, nightcappers, silvers, sunsetters, honoured elders, yold (portmanteau of young/old). This last term, unfortunately, in Yiddish, refers to a fool.  Another alternative is to create an acronym: • nyppies (not yet past it) • owls (older, working less) or older, wiser, learning • hopskis (healthy old people spending kids’ inheritance. • indy (I’m not dead yet). What we call an age group might seem trivial but often the words used to classify a segment of society affects people’s attitudes toward the group. Examples are flight attendant instead of stewardess, personal assistant rather than secretary, and extermination engineer instead of pest controller. Given our rising importance and the lack of an accepted modern term to describe our stage of life, if you have a preferred word from the list above or a different suggestion, I look forward to receiving your ideas on how to solve my current word dilemma.    Richler’s latest book is Wordplay: Arranged and Deranged Wit
Editors Note: As a person who fits your definition or lack of it, I have had to come to terms (excuse the pun) with my age and designation. Further I’ve had to battle the connotation of the word “senior” in my 31 years as a publisher of this newspaper. The front page headline of our first issue was “Power of the Elderly.” Nowadays that would be considered an oxymoron. Just to stir up the pot, back in the 80s, Sid Stevens had a word for seniors: “Experienced Canadians.” Where does that leave the rest of us? Let’s continue the debate with readers and friends alike but whatever we decide, I refuse to change the name of The Senior Times and give in to those who refuse to read us because they say they are not seniors. They don’t know what they’re missing and they are self-agists. I think I just made up a new term. From the above options I prefer “hopskis” because it best defines me. However I shall not change the name of this newspaper to The Hopskis Times. Or maybe I will. That’s what you call “Power of the Hopskis!” — Barbara Moser, Publisher of The Senior Times

Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Sexual Harassment

                                                        Deconstructing Sexual Harassment
                                                                   Howard Richler

(This article appeared in the June 2018 edition of Arts & Opinion under the title Sexual harassment,  a semantic perspective: Does language obscure or is it a cure?

Alas, the year 2017 was marked by words that denote the ill-treatment of women by men. Following the revelations of the behaviour of Harvey Weinstein and his predatory ilk, the adjective “inappropriate” saw a large spike in usage. People soon realized that this word, often applied to the misbehaviour of a child wasn’t quite suitable to describe the level of misdeeds. Before long stronger terms such as “abuse” and “harassment” became the most common used descriptions. And if one considers it as a word, the hashtag #MeToo became a rallying cry from many women to describe their own similar experiences of sexual harassment. Underscoring this lexical recognition of the plight of women, Merriam-Webster named the word “feminism” as its word of the year for 2017 and stated that it was the most searched-for-word in its online dictionary showing a 70% increase from 2016. Also, the word “persisterhood,” defined as women who join forces to persist against sexism and gender bias, was nominated as one of the “words of the year” of 2017 by the American Dialect Society. (The winner was “fake news.”)
Writing in 1991, Rosalie Maggio in the Dictionary of Bias-Free Usage remarked that “sexual harassment was not a term anyone used 20 years ago; today we have laws against it.” Actually, it was exactly twenty years earlier that we find the first citation of “sexual harassment” in the OED,  and it comes from the Yale Daily News of April 19, 1971: “ We insist…that sexual harassment is an integral component of discrimination. Men perceive women in sexual categories and not in professional categories.”  The OED defines the term as “harassment (typically of a woman by a man) in a work place or other professional or social situations involving the making of unwanted sexual advances obscene remarks, etc.”  Maggio’s point was that while sexual harassment obviously occurred prior to 1971, its lexical recognition gave it greater force to be countered by laws or social norms. Before long sexual harassment was recognized as a phenomenon in the legal arena. In 1986, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that employers could not permit an employee to create a hostile work environment for someone else or base advancement on a quid pro quo for sex. In 1989, the Supreme Court in Canada ordained that sexual harassment represented sexual discrimination and thus could not be tolerated.
Most academic institutions have definitions of sexual harassment and invariably they contain hard to define adjectives such as “unwanted,” “unwelcome” “vexatious” and “obscene.” Adjectives by definition are descriptive and depend largely on a consensus of a shared reality which unfortunately does not exist in analysing sexual harassment. For what is deemed unwanted or unwelcome by one person may be wanted or welcome to another.   Also, what qualifies as an obscene comment or joke can be highly subjective. One definition of sexual harassment includes the phrase “verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that tends to create a hostile or offensive work environment.”  Again, we’re dealing with thorny adjectives such as “hostile” and “offensive.”  Almost everyone, male or female, accepts that sexual favours can’t be a condition for a job or promotion. Large majorities consider “unwelcome” touching as improper but often women and men disagree on what constitutes sexual harassment, such as what counts as sexualized remarks or what qualifies “ogling.”  And although younger men’s attitudes approximate those of women to a much larger extent than older males, the gap in the positions of the sexes endures.
It is also important to register that there is a hierarchy of offenses related to the term sexual harassment.  Last December, actor Matt Damon in an interview with Peter Travers of ABC Television, stated “there’s a difference between patting someone on the butt and rape or child molestation, right?  Both of those behaviors need to be confronted and eradicated without question, but they shouldn’t be conflated, right?” Those comments were met with anger and frustration online, where many women, including the actress Alyssa Milano, rejected attempts to categorize various forms of sexual misconduct. After Damon’s interview, Milano wrote on Twitter: “They are all connected to a patriarchy intertwined with normalized, accepted — even welcomed — misogyny.” Last December in a panel discussion of seven feminists in the New York Times on sexual harassment, broadcast journalist Soledad O’Brien came down squarely on Damon’s side in this dispute referencing the various meanings of the term: “ I think we conflate the many different definitions of sexual harassment — the legal definition, someone’s personal interpretation. Some things are legally a crime. Other actions would clearly violate a company’s standards, inappropriate language, physically grabbing a woman, pressuring an underling for sex. They are all bad and should be stopped, but I think they deserve different levels of punishment.”
Interestingly, on some university campuses the term “affirmative consent” has gained currency It postulates that at every stage of a relationship that a verbal agreement but as Daphne Merkin points out in a Jan 5, 2018 article in the New York Times, “asking for oral consent before proceeding with a sexual advance seems both innately clumsy and retrograde.”  And so the debate on what constitutes sexual harassment and how to combat it rages on.

Richler’s latest book is Wordplay: Arranged  and Deranged Wit.

Tuesday, May 8, 2018


                                            What’s in a literary surname? 

                                                   Howard Richler

What do the Dickensian character Ebenezer Scrooge, Shakespearean character Mistress Quickly, and Richard Sheridan’s character Mrs. Malaprop have in common?
They are all aptronyms. The Oxford Companion to the English Language defines an aptronym as a “name that matches its owner’s occupation or character, often in a humorous or ironic way, such as William Rumhole, a London taverner.” The word was coined in 1938 by American newspaper columnist Franklin P. Adams. He rearranged the first two letters of the word patronym, the naming from one’s father, and arrived at the word “aptronym” which refers to an “apt” name. 

English literature has brought us some memorable aptronyms. Shakespeare provides several, including Shallow, Quickly, Bottom, Falstaff and Toby Belch; Henry Fielding, in Tom Jones, presents us with righteous Squire Allworthy and in Joseph Andrews with Lady Booby; Paul Bunyan in Pilgrim’s Progress gave us the pair of Mr. Talkative and Mr. Worldly Wiseman.

Nineteenth-century writers in particular seemed to have enjoyed creating aptronymic characters. Thomas Hardy in Return of the Native named a character Wildeve, R.S. Surtees named a character Leather in Mr. Sponge’s Sporting Tour and Anthony Trollope unveils the (pre-Kevorkian) Dr. Fillgrave in his novel Doctor Thorne.

Charles Dickens, in particular, was a master of the literary aptronym. In A Christmas Carol, we find Scrooge, described as “squeezing, grasping...and hard as flint,” and Old Fezziwig; Oliver Twist gives us the trio of the fussy official Bumble, Mr. Grimwig and the burglar, Toby Crackit; in Hard Times we discover the austere Gradgrind and M’Choakumchild, who teaches in Gradgrind’s school. From A Tale of Two Cities, we find the Crunchers, a family of grave-robbers and in David Copperfield, we meet the villainous Murdstone, whose name suggests “murder” and “merde,” (“shit,” in French).
In the post- Dickensian era, the practice of naming literary characters based on their personality, was not overly popular. Of course, there were exceptions, such as Oscar Wilde’s Jack Worthing in The Importance of Being Earnest and Shaw’s Candida. More recently, J.R.R. Tolkien in Lord of the Rings named Bilbo Baggins' mother Belladonna and presented the reader with the riddle of whether the name referenced her beauty or her poisonous nature.
James Joyce used aptronyms sublimely. His selection of the name Leopold Bloom as his protagonist in Ulysses is a study in irony. “Leopold” means a free man who is strong yet “bloom” refers to a fragile flower. Also, Bloom’s real surname is Virag and this name seems to be a play on virago, a word designating a war-like woman. Then we have Stephen Dedalus. Stephen means a crown and Stephen is the crown of his family with the burden of making a name for himself in Dublin society. Stephen is also the name of the first Christian martyr who was stoned by his peers for his radical beliefs. His surname Dedalus derives from the character in Greek mythology, Daedalus, a crafty architect who built an elaborate labyrinth for King Minos of Crete so that he could imprison his wife’s monstrous son.  Later, Daedalus builds wings, for human flight and this leads to the death of his son Icarus. It would seem in Ulysses that Dedalus too wants to “fly away” from the constraints that politics and religion places on an artist.
If you are a fan of literary aptronyms, you’ll be happy to know that they returned with a vengeance in the book world thanks to J.K. Rowling's hugely popular Harry Potter series.  Harry’s nemesis is the evil Draco Malfoy. Here, both the first and last names describe his character. Draco is Latin for “dragon” and it was also the name of the “zero-tolerant” seventh century B.C. Athenian lawmaker who lent his name to the word “draconian.” Mal foi is French for “bad faith” and the name Malfoy conjures all sort of malicious and malignant words. Malfoy belongs to the malevolent Slytherin House named after its founder Salazar Slytherin.“Slytherin” is a blend of the words “sly” and “slithering.” Harry’s supreme foe is Lord Voldemort whose name does double duty as vol de mort  in French means “flight from death” or “theft of death,” and “vole” is also a type of rat-like rodent.Most of Harry’s teachers at Hogwarts wizardry school have evocative names. Professor Quirrel is both quarrelsome and squirrelly and Professor Severus Snape is severe and a cross between a snipe and a snake.  Hogwarts professors tend to gravitate to fields which match their names. Vindictus Veridian teaches a class on curses and Professor Sprout’s area of expertise is herbology. Professor Remus Lupin teaches a course “Defense Against the Dark Arts.” Guess what he turns out to be? Those who know Latin and Roman mythology will be able to divine that he is a werewolf. According to lore, Remus, the co-founder of Rome, was suckled by a wolf, and lupus is the Latin word for “wolf.”
So thanks to J.K. Rowling’s magical aptronymic characters, literary aptronyms might possibly be making a comeback.

Richler’s latest book is Wordplay: Arranged and Deranged Wit


Saturday, March 31, 2018


2001-Split Definitive Puzzlethought complilation (8)  (l)These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.
2002-Commonality    What do these words have in common?       auspices-halcyon-pedigree 
2003-Discern     egg-thrash-Boston     pit-old-ern      cocktail-apple-chili
2004-Split Definitive Puzzle swindle master   (11)   (t)
2005-Omnibus is  shortened in the beginning  to become bus and pianoforte shortened at the end to become piano. Name a word  that has been shortened at both ends.
2006-Discern      bottle-around-dive     fish-artificial-function   cock-lights-fox
2007-Split Definitive Puzzle –     listen to change in a general direction (12)    (t)
2008-Anagram Name an anagrammatic locale for flowers in Newfoundland 
2009-Discern        ford-grape-sally      dance-egg-farm       all-hunting-sea     
2010-Split Definitive Puzzle    morning gaudy jewelry   (7)     (b)
2011-Anagram Name an anagrammatic phrase that means  adduces catalyst
2012-Discern       cutter-filo-French    cake-peppermint-salmon   bacon-brained-chick
2013-Split Definitive Puzzle  so be it can (8)  (a)
2014-Anagram Name an anagrammatic phrase that means     arbiter who takes bribes
2015-Discern        a)fire-show-red                 b)fire-arctic-vigil  c) fire-flu-boo
2016-Split Definitive Puzzlemore popular option on a 45     (5)  (s)
2017-Anagram Name an anagrammatic phrase that means  large bird singer   
2018-Discern      sauce-less-bearing     sandwich-sausage-technique     ball-Irish-recipe
2019-Split Definitive Puzzle where they keep the shotglasses   (8)   (r)
2020-Anagram Name an anagrammatic phrase that means senseless gentleness
2021-Discern       great-gray-poodle     bath-dis-ward        blue-cap-silk
2022-Split Definitive Puzzle outlaw death (8)  (d)These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.
2023-Anagram-Name an anagrammatic phrase that means  milky journal
2024-Discern     roast-kin-stones    date-brown-head    French-cake-yogurt
2025-Split Definitive Puzzleacquire talent   (12)  (i)
2026-Anagram Name an anagrammatic phrase that means  remained reliable
2027-Discern cell-donation-libel   leather-burner-green   high-French-cad
2028-Split Definitive Puzzle fish  go in   (9)   (e)
2029-Anagram     Name an anagrammatic phrase that refers to the back of a particular Nissan model 
2030-Discern     meat-humbug-sandwich      an-butter-ups                 avocado-salute-French
2031-Split Definitive Puzzle   mail cornmeal bread    (8)   (p)
2032-Commonality- What do these words have in common? pampered- flanged-eroding cashew-chilly-sleet-Dalit   
2033-Discern    cap-jam-loop    tow-pencil-line  powder-claw-a
2034-Split Definitive Puzzle  (9)  (t) prisoner stall
2035-Commonality- What do these words have in common? supplied-land-cock       
2036-Discern    bear-a-Chicago    white-Tamil-mom    morning-spree-sky
2037-Split Definitive Puzzle police debts  (i)   (7)
2038-Anagram Name an anagrammatic phrase that refers to a   Wyoming predicament 
2039-Discern      roasted-horse-oak     avocado-salute-French    ad-ball-custody
2040-Split Definitive Puzzle remains run into    (6)   (a)
2041-Palindrome  Name a palindromic phrase that utters a physical threat to an opponent of a Florida city.
2042-Discern      camera-mix-points     bill-plains-saber       cinnamon-fight-honey
2043-Split Definitive Puzzlewithout an agenda  (8)  (l)
2044-Commonality What do these words have in common?  candles-elder-entitles 
2045-Discern      bull-gold-star      angel-attack-hammer    bell-black-counting
2046-Split Definitive Puzzle listen row  (8)   (t)
2047-Anagram  Name an anagrammatic phrase that refers to  what a masochist does during a workout 
2048-Discern     ice-fly-ping      boar-blood- roll       popcorn-dance-supreme  
2049-Split Definitive Puzzle rocky peak instrument  (8)    (v)
2050-Anagram   Name an anagrammatic phrase that means   a large group of classical musicians comprised of heavy work equines      
2051-Discern      golden-liver-muscle     bet-bone-dig      swollen-hunter-figure
2052- Split Definitive Puzzle attention shelter  (7)  (n)
These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.
 2053-Anagram        Remaining gloomy and hellish 
2054-Discern -moon-give-alcohol      beer-less-cat     church-inner-university 
2055- Split Definitive Puzzle   20-20 EYESIGHT     (11)  (s)
2056-Anagram        hover above
2057-Discern    set-flash-seat       bloody-bone-sassiness      backbone-compressed-less  
2058- Split Definitive Puzzle     perfect excursion     (8)   (r)
2059-Understudy and overstuff feature a 4 letter alphabetic stream RSTU. Name a word that features a different 4 letter alphabetic stream. (Must be one word).
2060-Discern       cod-ern-away       a-laws-ball       beer-lout-phone
2061-Split Definitive Puzzle      rabbit fade      (7)  (d)
2062-Palindrome     palindromic phrase that describes drivel from an Anglo-Saxon slave 
2063-Discern     curl-or-under         strain-rib-catching       bump-fight--pump      
2064-Split Definitive Puzzle    bay fury    (8)   (c)
2065- Anagram    Name an anagrammatic expression that is a feature often found in consumer electronics.
2066-Discern     last-piano-ally       bruised-cage-eye     blade-cold-harness
2067-Split Definitive Puzzle      intellectually   nimble  (14)   (m)
2068-Palindrome     Name a palindromic phrase exemplified by this moronic assertion: Only thing that stops a bad guy with a gun is a good guy with a gun.
2069-Discern       bottoms-game-party        bossy-cargo-clown   grass-hoop-length
2070-Split Definitive Puzzle     equally positive  (9)  (a)
2071-Palindrome    Possible palindromic sign at a grocery store during a fruit shortage,
2072-Discern       browns-meat-up      fry-day-Christmas      play-hot-to
2074-Commonality    What do these names have in common?     Berton- Gaston-Mariel-Nat[H1] -Thor
2075-Discern        trumpet-mark-bud     set-yard-milk       pea-cramp-wash
2076-Split Definitive Puzzle        abolition due   (7)  (o)
2077-Name a  two word phrase of a commonly found sign inside airports where are the letters are found in the first half of the alphabet; Hint: 12 letters total.
2078-Discern      hold-double-safety     hold-turf-drag       hold-wrong-pad
2079-Split Definitive Puzzle      unit for transmitting inherited characteristics  (12)  (g)    
2080-Anagram   aversion to a place that shows art
2081-Discern able-harp-harvest      alley-arms-bonnet          oil-ranch-stole 
2082-Split Definitive Puzzle      eye item (8)    (t)
2083-Anagram     Abhors urgency of movement
2084-Discern        chair-work-bow                     trigger-weave-cat      bone-cap-fracture
2085- Split Definitive Puzzle        Charlie Chaplin, Zero Mostel or Paul Robeson ( at one time according to the FBI & HUAC)  (8) (r)
2086- Anagram    declare preference
2087- Discern      baby-Easter-blue      snow-gum-less        ace-head-scoff
2088 –Split Definitive        lost power  (7) (l)
2089-Anagram       exams of the sun
2090-Discern       colossal-flying-vampire       discord-fennel-thistle    dip-black-bell
2091-Split Definitive    garland definitely (9)  (s)
2092-Anagram       Surrey verse 
2093-Discern     ice-wings-skin     seed-whiskey-bread       league-pink-juice
2094-Split Definitive    in favor of long lock of hair  (8)  (f)
2095-Anagram       Crime-solving evergreens
2096-Discern     agent-gas-raw        worn-work-dragging       ­­­­­­ warmer-stiff-great
2097-Split Definitive     flaccid instinctive impulse   (6)  (l)
a)Name 2 winners of tennis Grand Slams
b)Name an actor who received an Academy Award Nomination as Best Actor or Best Supporting Actor
c)Name 2 Presidents or Prime Ministers, past or present
d)Name a CIA head
e)Name a football player in  the Hall of Fame
f)Name a White House Press Secretary
g)Name one of 25 richest people in the world
2099-Discern      hop-knee-puppet      soft-tongue-bag        bunny-ability-fit
2100-Split Definitive        crazy reason   (10)  (l)