Monday, September 17, 2018

Talking turkey & cranberry sauce and morphemes


                                    Talking turkey & cranberry sauce and morphemes
                                                            by
                                                  Howard Richler

In 1621, Plymouth Massachusetts colonists and Wampanoag natives collaborated in an autumn harvest that nowadays is recognized as one of the first Thanksgiving Day celebrations in the New World. It was only in 1863 in the midst of the Civil War that Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a national Thanksgiving Day to be celebrated each November.
No Donald Trump, it isn’t fake news, but the origin of Canadian Thanksgiving predates this. For in 1578, explorer Martin Frobisher held a thanksgiving feast that consisted of salt beef and mushy peas. This took place in Newfoundland during Frobisher’s quest to find the Northwest Passage.  In Canada, Thanksgiving was declared a national holiday in 1879 and this year falls on October 8th.
We do, however, enjoy more details as to the contents of the inaugural American Thanksgiving feast. Pilgrim chronicler Edward Winslow wrote in a journal that Governor Bradford sent four men on a “fowling” mission and that  the Wampanoag guests arrived bearing five deers. Historians suggest that the dishes were prepared using traditional indigenous spices  and because the Pilgrims  had no oven and very little sugar the meal didn’t feature the pies, cakes and other desserts which we associate with modern Thanksgiving feasts.
Winslow’s account mentions wild fowl but there is no explicit mention of turkey; the bird in question just as likely may have been duck or goose. But as Governor Bradford had mentioned in his writings that the colonists hunted wild turkeys in 1621, it gained traction as the Thanksgiving meal of choice when Lincoln entrenched the holiday in 1863.
But why is it called turkey and what is the relation of this ungainly bird to an Islamic country that has never celebrated Thanksgiving or American football?   And was the bird’s namer geographically-challenged.? Actually, geographical designations were rather imprecise in the 16th century.  For example, In Britain, at the time Persian rugs were called “Turkey rugs” and Indian flour, “Turkey flour.” The bird, whose technical name is Meleagris gallopavo was first domesticated by the Mayas and Aztecs who dwelled in Mexico and Central America. When the Spanish conquered the Aztecs, they began to export this bird back to Europe and Asia. At approximately the same time in the early 16th century, Portuguese traders in the New World exported this fowl to their Goa colony in India. From the beginning the New World fowl was confused with Meleagris numida, a bird commonly found in Africa (and particularly Guinea) that had been known to Mediterranean peoples as the “guinea fowl” or “turkey-cock.”   The word turkey’s first OED citation is in 1577 in Conrad Heresbach’s Foure books of Husbadry:  “Here I keepe..Geese, Duckes, Peacocks, Turkicocks and other poultry.”
While the English language made Turkey a stand-in for Asia, other languages have regarded India as the quintessence of the continent.  For example, observe the French dinde (of India) and the Hebrew hodu (India).  The words for “turkey” in Russia and Poland are indyushka and inyczka respectively (from India); Italians sometimes refer to the bird as pollo d’India and, most interestingly, the name of the bird in Turkey itself is hindi (the language of India).   Catalan and Basque also name the bird after India and some languages are even more specific and name it after the Indian city of Calicut such as Danish, kalkun, Dutch and Afrikaans, kalkoen, and Finnish kalkkuna.
Meanwhile in Portugal, the country that spawned the discussion, the designation of peru for “turkey” makes sense, since the country is actually geographically closer to the Central American origin of the fowl.  Speakers of Portuguese designated the Spanish Americas as Peru, and as the bird emanated from there, it was known in Portuguese as “peru.”  Further confusion occurs as some dialects of Hindi, probably influenced by Portuguese, use the term peru pakshi (Peru bird) to refer to a turkey.
And if you prefer garnishing your Thanksgiving turkey with cranberry sauce, be aware that while the original Thanksgiving revellers may have enjoyed turkey, they definitely weren’t able to flavour the bird with cranberry sauce. While cranberries were probably available to the Pilgrims, they would not have been able to create cranberry sauce due to the lack of sugar. In any case, it would appear that cranberry sauce was only invented sometime in the 1660s as this is the first reference to it in a journal of a Brit travelling in Massachusetts. Also,  cranberry sauce only enjoys its first OED citation in 1767.
At this point you might be asking, what exactly is a cran?  The answer is “nothing really.” While other languages such as German and Swedish have similar terms such as kranichbeere and tranbar respectively, the kranich and tran add-ons also don’t have specific meanings. In fact,  the cranberry has the honour of designating  this type of  linguistic term. A “cranberry morpheme” describes a part of a word that doesn’t have an independent meaning or grammatical function but distinguishes one word from another. Other examples of this phenomenon are the “kempt” in unkempt, the “twi” in twilight, the “luke” in lukewarm and the “ept” in inept.
Don’t let the mistake in naming turkey and the unknowable cran element in cranberry prevent you from enjoying your next Thanksgiving feast.
Richler’s latest book is Wordplay: Arranged and Deranged Wit. (It isn’t a turkey)


Friday, August 31, 2018

THE OED AT 90


         The Summum of Dictionaries
                           by
                  Howard Richler
What’s four score and ten yet stronger, healthier and possesses a greater vocabulary than ever? I speak, of course, about the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).  The OED is the summum of dictionaries, not only because it is the biggest, the best, and the supreme authority.What elevates into a league of one is its breadth. It is rapacious and devours every word that has ever existed in English and this makes it the ideal archive of our language. No other language can boast about having such a complete tome.

The compilation of the First Edition of the OED began in the 

1850s and was completed in 1928. Its naïve editors  estimated then that the project would be finished in approximately ten years, but alas after  fifteen years when editor James Murray and his colleagues had only reached as far as the word ‘ant’, they realized it was time to revise their schedule. It was not surprising that the project was taking longer than anticipated. Not only are the complexities of the English language daunting, but like a virus, it never stops evolving. The lexicographic team had to keep track of new words and new meanings of existing words at the same time that they were trying to examine the previous eight centuries of the language’s development.

But finally, the first volume of the OED was completed in 1928 

with the final section, (called a fascicle in lexicology-speak) 

comprising words from Wise to Wyzen.  The original plan in the 

1850s called for approximately 6,400 pages in four volumes, but the completion of the First Edition contained over 400,000 

words and phrases in ten volumes.

In 1989, a complete Second Edition was published, consisting 

of the original OED amalgamated with the supplementary 

volumes, and together with 5,000 completely new entries. In 

1993 and 1997, three volumes of Additions to the Second 

Edition were published
In 2000 the OED Online was launched  and the computer-based resources available to the staff who work on the OED  has facilitated the data collection and in particular to record words from some of the “other” Englishes such as  Japanese, Indian and  Singapore English.
The original estimate had the Third Edition being completed in 2010 and containing approximately 40 volumes but this timetable proved to be woefully wrong. By 2014, the new estimate for completion was 2034 and chief editor Michael Proffitt said that is was running late due to “information overload” as a plethora of data kept pouring in from computer sources.
Newly revised entries are published online every three months, giving the OED a modern, relevant tone that represents the myriad flavours of English available on the planet.
Thus does the OED proceed judiciously, amassing,modifying, defining, and it proceeds truly at a snail’s-pace – a phrase first employed in the fifteenth century. But I assure you that over the last eighteen years there has been dramatic changes and additions to our language.  The OED provides endless proof of how the “other Englishes,” the “newer Englishes” are changing and enhancing the language. Truth be told, there are now far more people who speak English as a second language than as their first one and therefore the vocabulary growth comes largely from the exotic locales where second language speakers dwell.
The increase in data is mind-boggling. In 1989,the OED lexicographic team was able to add approximately 80 new words a month but by 2014 the amount of new words was reduced to no more than 60 due to the much larger amount of information available, notwithstanding the advances information technology has provided.

To give readers a sense of the new words inundating our language, I have made a list of words with accompanied definitions from A to Z that the OED has added since it went online in 2000. For each letter, I have included one word from what might be thought of as “traditional English” (American, Canadian, Australian, United Kingdom & Ireland) and one from the “new Englishes”(Malaysian, Caribbean, South African Englishes, etc.) I have also indicated in brackets when the word was added to our lexicon:

App(2001)-A piece of software designed to perform specific functions. (Shortened form of application).
Angmoh( 2016)-In Singapore English, a term for light-skinned people.
Bogart(2005)-Especially, among Afro-American usage, to force, coerce or bully.
Barangay(2015)-In Philippines English, a village or suburb.
Cissexual(2015)-Designates a  person whose sense of personal identification and gender corresponds to his or hers at birth.
Cosplay(2008)-Originally in Japan it referred to dressing up in costume as character from anime and manga; now extended to characters from video games.
Digerati(2003)-Refers to people with proficient involvement or exceptional knowledge of information technology.
Dai pai dong( 2016)-In Hong Kong, a traditional licensed street stall selling cooked food at low prices.

Enviropig(2015)-A genetically modified variety of pig that is able to digest phytic acid, producing manure with a reduced phosphorus content and hence less environmental impact.

Eve-teasing(2005)-In India, sexual harassment of a woman, verbal or physical, by a man in a public place. 
Femcee(2012)-Female master of ceremonies.
Funana(2017)-In Cape Verde Islands, dance music accompanied with an accordion and ferrinho.
Gaydar(2003)-Ability attributed especially to gay people to identify homosexual people.

Ghagra(2006)-In parts of India, especially Rajasthan: a long full skirt or petticoat with a drawstring waist and often ornamented with bells.

Hoser(2006)-In Canadian English, a stupid, unsophisticated loutish person.
Hongbao(2016)-A traditional Chinese good luck gift of money.
Iron woman(2013)-A woman who is hardy, robust, or capable of great endurance; now specifically a powerful female athlete, especially one who excels in endurance events.

Inukshuk(2015)-A structure of rough stones stacked in the form of a human figure,traditionally used by the Inuit as a landmark or commemorative sign, or to drive caribou toward hunters.

Junkball(2016)-In baseball, a pitch that relies on movement rather than speed, such as a breaking ball or knuckleball.

Juku(2004)-In Japan, an educational system based on a European and U.S. model of progressive education, which works within the framework of private schools and provides a variety of practical and vocational skills taught in addition to a Western-style core curriculum.

Krump(2016)-In hip hop: extremely energized while dancing.
Khimar(2010)-A head covering or veil worn in public by some Muslim women, specifically one of a type covering the head, neck, and shoulders.

Listicle(2006)-A journalistic article or other piece of writing, presented wholly or partly in the form of a lists. This term is often used in a pejorative manner.

Lepak(2016)-In Malaysian and Singapore English, to loiter aimlessly or idly; to loaf, relax, hang out.

Moobs(2006)-Unusually prominent breasts on a man.

Matutu(2001)-In Kenya, an unlicensed taxi or minibus.
Nobbins(2003)-British slang for money.

Nam Prik(2003)-A paste or sauce made with chilli and shrimp, widely used in Thai cookery as a condiment or dipping sauce.

Oxycontin(2005)-Proprietary name of  the analgesic drug oxycodone.

 Oyakata(2005)-In Japan: a master, a boss;  and in sumo wrestling, it refers to the master of a wrestling stable.

Phat(2001)-Especially among Afro-Americans, it refers to a woman who is sexy and attractive and in music it denotes excellence.
Prepone(2001)-In Indian English, to bring forward to an earlier time; the opposite of postpone.
Queer nation(2007)-A community of people united by homosexuality, lesbianism, or by a shared belief in gay rights.
Qawwali(2002)-A style of Muslim devotional music, now associated particularly with Sufis in Pakistan, characterized by a fervent, often improvisatory vocal delivery, accompanied on drums and harmonium.

Retweet(2015)-OnTwitter, an act or instance of posting a message, image, link, etc., originally posted by another user. (Tweet, {not the bird sense} was added in 2013.)

Roko(2010)-In India, a protest in which road or rail traffic is disrupted by a large group of demonstrators.

Sext(2015)-A sexually explicit or suggestive message or image sent electronically, typically using a mobile phone.(Not to be confused this the nicer sext: One of the daily offices, or canonical hours of prayer and worship, of the Western Church, traditionally said (or chanted) at the sixth hour of the day (about midday).

Sabo(2016)-In Singapore English, to harm, inconvenience, make trouble. Shortened form of sabotage.
Twerk(2015)-A sexually provocative dance involving thrusting movement of the butt and hips in a low squatting position.
Teh tarik(2016)-In Malaysian English and Singapore English, sweet tea with milk, prepared by pouring the liquid back and forth repeatedly between two containers so as to produce a thick foam on top.

Unsub(2016)-In law enforcement: a person of unknown identity who is the subject of a criminal investigation.

Udyog(2017)- In Indian English, a company or commercial enterprise, especially one involved in manufacturing.

Vaping(2015)-The action or practice of inhaling and exhaling the vapour produced by an electronic cigarette or similar device.

Videshi(2007)-In India: foreign; coming from a country other than India.

Weblog(2003)-A file containing a detailed record of each request received by a web server, frequently recording data that allows a variety of different aspects of the web traffic reaching that server to be analysed. Before long, this term was shortened to blog.

Wakizashi(2007)-A type of samurai  sword.

Xeriscape(2008)-To landscape an area in such a way as to minimize its need for irrigation, especially by using plants and features suited to a dry climate.

Xoloitzcuintli(2012)-The Mexican hairless dog. (Often shortened to xolo).
Yada yada(2006)-Indicating, usually dismissively, that further details are predictable or evident from what has preceded.

Yumcha(2016)-In Chinese contexts: a meal eaten in the morning or early afternoon, typically consisting of dim sum and hot tea.

Zeppelining(2014)-Moving in a manner of a Zeppelin(type of airship); to soar.

Zama zama(2015)-In South Africa, a person who works illegally in abandoned mine-shafts in order to retrieve metals, minerals, etc.

Happy 90th OED.

Richler’s latest book is Wordplay: Arranged and Deranged Wit.

 



 






 

  










Monday, July 23, 2018

THE QUINTESSENTIAL CANADIANISM


                                    Eh? Too Canadian?                               
                                                  by
                                          Howard Richler

As Canada has reached the august age of 151, I’m taking the opportunity to reflect on a  quintessential Canadianism. In 1959, when Canada was but a mere whippersnapper of 92, Harold Allen in his article Canadian-American Speech Differences Along the Middle Border, which appeared in the Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association, wrote: “Eh? is so exclusively a Canadian feature that immigration officials use it as an identifying clue.” While not as pervasive nowadays, some Americans take pleasure in pointing to our proclivity for using the term. Perhaps you’ve seen the Molson commercial entitled The Office Fight in the I Am Canadian series where an American gets his “bell rung” after mocking a Canadian’s supposed ubiquitous usage of eh?
Granted the supposed Canadian addiction to the word eh? is a stereotype,  it is a word  that Canadians are famous (or perhaps infamous) for.  While its use is not unique to Canadian English, Canadians appear to use it more widely and more often than other speakers of English.
In the early 1980s, eh? was used in  a satirical sense on  the comedy  program SCTV that was featured on CBC. In a segment entitled Great White North we were introduced to the beer-chugging brothers Bob and Doug McKenzie who peppered virtually every sentence with at least two ehs? More recently, in May 2017, I read an article entitled Origins of eh? How 2 little letters came to define Canadians by CBC’s Paul Karchut in  which  he quotes Derek Denis, a post-doctorate fellow at the University of Victoria’s linguistic  department, who said that  “the SCTV  sketches changed how Canadians and people outside of Canada  viewed the word {eh}.”  It is my recollection, however, that Americans were mocking the Canadian use of the word for a long time before that. I attended a summer camp in New York State as a thirteen-year old in 1961 in which I was often derided by my American bunkmates for my supposed repeated use of the word eh?
When I was teased by Americans for my oft-used ehs? I would point out to them that it was merely an equivalent to their use of the equally inelegant huh?  And, whereas a Canadian might say “So you got a new car, eh?, an American would utter “So you got a new car, huh?”  In both cases, one is using the add-on to confirm a fact. Truth be told, Canadians will use eh? to confirm whether the person you’re talking to has really absorbed what you’re telling them. So a Canadian might say “Well, I got a new car, eh?” whereas an American is unlikely to say “Well I got a new car, huh?” The use of eh? for the Canadian in this instance is an attempt for confirmation from the person you’re addressing that they have bothered to recognize what you’re asserting.
Actually, eh? predates the birth of our nation  by almost half a century aa Geoffrey Chaucer used the Middle English ey? in The Canterbury Tales in the late 14th century. In the United Kingdom there are two main constructions of the word as a request for repetition and as a tag. Here are some literary examples from British and Irish writers:
              “Wasn’t it lucky? Eh! (Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer, 1773)
“And who is to look after the horses, eh”    (Emily Bronté, Wuthering Heights,1847)

“So you think he might be hard on me, eh? (Charles Dickens, Bleak House, 1852)

“Breakfast out here, eh?  (George Bernard Shaw, Arms and the Man, 1894)

And had I been an erudite 13-year old in 1961, I could have pointed out how even American writers stooped to use eh?:

“Didn’t come, eh?”  (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises, 1926)
“So this is Brooklyn, eh?”  (Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman, 1949)
“Not like some people we know, eh?” (J.D.Salinger, Franny and Zooey, 1961)


This being said, we must admit that eh? is rather prolific in Canada. In fact, Kalin Wright in Eh is Canadian Eh? lists ten functions of  the word eh? in Canadian English.

1)    Statement of opinion                                     Nice day, eh?
2)    Statement of fact                                             It goes here, eh?
3)    Command                                                          Open the window, eh?
4)    Exclamation                                                       What a game, eh?
5)    Question                                                             What are you trying to do, eh?
6)     Pardon substitute                                            Eh? What did you say?
7)    In a fixed expression                                        Thanks, eh?
8)    Insult                                                                    You’re a real snob, eh?
9)    Accusation                                                          You took the last piece, eh?
10)Telling a story                                                    The guy is on the 27th floor, then he gets on the   ledge, eh?               

By all accounts, however, in the last decade there has been a marked decline in the use of eh? by Canadian kids who are more likely to employ right?,  or the inelegant American huh? as a tag-on to their speech. This tendency is most common in large Canadian cities as young people regard the use of eh? as non-cool and rural. After all, what self-respecting young person wants to sound like their nerdy parents or country cousins?

It’s a crying shame, eh?

Richler’s latest book is Wordplay: Arranged and Deranged Wit.

Tuesday, July 10, 2018

FACEBOOK PUZZLES 2101-2200


        WORDPUZZLES-2101-2200 

2101-Palindrome Name a palindromic phrase that questions whether a certain type of bird has theological thoughts
2102-Divergent Words  a)wag-chin-a        b)high-coat-empire   c)screw-print-tom
2103-Split Definitive night before balance (7)    ®
2104-Palindrome Palindromic announcement to the guys from Marshall Bruce Mathers 111
2105-Divergent Words a) lemon-locust-cake     b)baby-tea-mix     c)baguette-got-baked
2106-Split Definitive  swindle exam(7)   (c)
2107-Anagram     Aroma  
2108-Divergent Words  a)leaf-paper-wood    b)spy-hill-sting    c)hell-call-pole
2109-Split Definitive money only    (8)   (c)       
2110-Anagram  Ruins Austrian composer’s symphony    
2111-Divergent Words    c)coal-palm-recognition     b)cone-button-red           c)duck-wind-shirt
2112-Split Definitive Puzzle    prophet chump  (10)  (s)
2113-Anagram  Apathetic Swiss city     
2114-Divergent Words  a)core-crab-computer    b)bow-authority-ion    c)golden-tea-cap
2115-Anagram  Freshest 
2116-Split Definitive fake diamond  (8)    (r)
2117-Divergent Words   a)rehearsal-coat-full    b)under-sissy-ski     c)chaser-out-tube
2118-Split Definitive Puzzle   act in a more uncontrolled fashion    (8)   (b)
2119-Anagram  Strong needs move like waves
2120-Divergent Words    a)fast-wheat-saw     b)shiner-proof-church     c)complain-car-way
2121-Split Definitive Puzzle     prisoner stretched tight (11)   (s)
2122-Anagram  Honor imperial authority  
2123-Divergent Words   a)ball-shoe-by      b)wings-deep-back     c)eyed-hip-bald
2124-Split Definitive Puzzle Archive swarming crowded curve  (7)   (h)
2125-Anagram     anagrammatically describe how many millennia make this
2126-Divergent Words  a)over-wing-dog   b)check-less-instinct     c)room-lock-dog
2127-Split Definitive Puzzle   debts of little devils   (7)   (i)
2128-Commonality What do these words have in common?      medal-manure-priest  
2129-Divergent Words  a)cup-warmer-on       b)foot-faced-sour     c)off-cubes-rush
2130-Split Definitive           often, 72  (9)  (a)
2131-Commonality What do these words have in common?      carnal-harem-ornate 
2132-Divergent Words  a)bow-square-strong      b)hold-hatch-board       c)hold-jam-rag
2133-Split Definitive Puzzle   togetherness of naughty fairies   (8)  (i)
2134-Difference What is the existential difference between TH  and MP?
2135-Divergent Words  a)shoe-green-bill    b)led-white-poison   c)cat-nee-manhandle
2136-Split Definitive Puzzle   commercial speech      (9)   (a)  
2137-Commonality What do these words have in common?      state-action-sable  
2138-Divergent Words  a)spray-super-flu     b)razor-red-net        c)sea-Indian-Baltimore
2139-Split Definitive browse row   (8)   (t)
2140-Anagram  Discreet rental of your apartment to a third party 
2141-Divergent Words    a)gate-glass-back       b)devotee-health-cracker     c)boiled-aha-Chinese
2142-Split Definitive play on words sharp punch    (6)  (p)
2143-Anagram  beached quadruped    
2144-Divergent Words   a)box-red-bar   b)box-ern-sailor       c)box-sticks-corn
2145-Split Definitive sudden idea for each one    (7)  (w)
2146-Anagram  can that describe a clad  omnivore    
2147-Divergent Words    a)out-word-family     b)laughing-plunged-soap   c)attack-poop-under
2148-Split Definitive  sweep over with a camera attempt    (6)   (p)
2149-Anagram  Lemon Ford in English city   
2150-Divergent Words   a)party-blood-roll     b)bread-chips-wrap     c)art-tree-pockets
2151-Split Definitive    lay to rest goal  (12)   (m)
2152-Anagram    very wide flat piece of wood
2153 Divergent Words   a)stepping-Canada-bay     b)red-rush-ring   c)roe-owing-fish
2154- Split Definitive  colorless gas devoured (7)  (n) These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.              

2155-Anagram  a certain group of non-drunk Africans
2156-Divergent Words   a)dry-orbital-yard      b)up-stage-chair       c)curve-down-white
2157- Split Definitive fighter pilot kind of sound (7)  (t) These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.              

2158-Commonality  nuance-realm-improve
2159-Divergent Words   a)food-jack-punch    b)paper-blow-boy        c) round-computer-heart
2160- Split Definitive         wager glimmer  (6)  ( r) These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.              

2161-Anagram  Bloodsuckers found in London or NYC   (ALTERNATE SPELLING)
2162-Divergent Words   a)Easter-elephant -eared   b)omega-running-gone        c)thorn-eye-quick
2163-Split Definitive         crazy porcine creature      (9)      (m)
2164-Commonality maple-orgasm-grate   NI
2165-Divergent Words   mulled-sap-boxWINE      pulled-barrel-saltPORK      taxi-high-snakeWATER
2166-Split Definitive         Exhale   formerly healthy  (6)  (e)
2167- Anagram an arbiter who accepts bribes 
2168-Divergent Words   be-I-sight    flap-fight-fat        toe-post-wood
2169-Split Definitive          in favour of price offering (10)    (b)
2170-Anagram   tiresome beyond immediate environment
2171-Divergent Words   mixer-saw-held      ward-wash-welcome      jar-land-pencil
2172-Split Definitive        Shimon’s three-person administrative council  (11)  (p)
2173-Anagram Reclusive person who believes her country should keep its king or queen instead of becoming a republic  
2174-Divergent Words   run-rubber-dance   window-watch-back   moon-follow-star
2175-Split Definitive Puzzle     trough bug   (9)   (t) These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.              
2176-Commonality    gravy-celery-brain
2177-Discern the convergent words    room-nudge-macaroni  level-beer-flora  under-lead-Delhi
2178-Split Definitive Puzzle   fasten allowance  (10)   ( r) These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.              

2179-Anagram    alienate nco
2180-Discern the convergent words      wood-shoe-clog      hog-hot-rod     blue-down-worker
2181- Split Definitive Puzzle     award big cat  (9)   (m) These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.              

2182Anagram  Widen individual item   dilate detail
2183- Discern the convergent words    keg-pit-up    let-mentally-out   wax-weed-worker     
2184 - Split Definitive Puzzle     uptick in stock market in late afternoon   l  (9)    (l) These “split definitives” are now featured in my most recent book Wordplay:Arranged and Deranged Wit.              

2185- The World Cup on Thursday  (621)featured a game between 2  countries- one where the resident of the country is an anagram to a fruit; the other where the resident of the  country is an anagram to an article of clothing. Name the countries and residents thereof.

2186-Discern the convergent words     love-crisp-green   trap-twist-be blue-puffer-tale
2187-Split Definitive Puzzle   fellow prostrated himself  (8)   ( c)
2188-Commonality  decree-greed-prone
2189-Discern the convergent words crampBRAIN
2190-Split Definitive Puzzle   flowery beer   (7)  (b)
2191-Commonality      vacillation-serendipity-videotaping
 2192  Canada Day Quiz
a)Name a 10 letter word containing only 2 consonants that describe a particular Canadian resident.
 b)Name 4  Ontario cities or towns comprised only of letters worth 1 point in Scrabble.
 c)Name a Canadian city of at least 10 letters comprised of only odd letters in the alphabet
d)Name a palindromic Canadian city.
e)Aside from x,y, &z , name the 2 letters that don’t appear in any Canadian provinces
f) Name a Cnc city or town of at least 10 letters where no letter appears more than once.  


2193- Split Definitive Puzzle     indication friend  (8)   (s)
2194-Anagram  where Caesar possibly lived
2195 July 4th Quiz
a)Name the only letter that doesn’t appear in any US state.
b)Name a US city where the last 5 letters are an anagram of the first 5 letters.
c)What American significance do these words have?  Nest-imps-lamb
d)Name a US state capital that is an anagram of a  former quarterback MVP
e)Name the only US state capital that doesn’t share an letter with its state. 
f) What American significance do these words have?    Lathes-nails-tans
g) )What American significance do these words have?  namesake-Eumenides-experience-phrenologist
2196- Split Definitive Puzzle   monarchist  (7)  (f)
2197-Anagram  African post   
2198Discern the convergent words      fool-a-cat     mall-dirty-ion    hatch-prize- trap  
2199-  Split Definitive Puzzle    penny Commie  (7)  (c)
2200-Anagram    protected deliverance